Is donating plasma safe? Plasma donation process.
Is donating plasma safe? Plasma donation process:
Plasma donation is a most impactful thing. By donating blood plasma you will find immense pleasure that you helped somebody. Here, in this article, you will know all about “Is donating plasma safe? Plasma donation process.” All things that you should know before donating plasma.
Blood plasma is the liquid component of the blood which is extracellular and only holds blood cells in suspension.
It makes up about 55% of the bodies total blood volume.
- Water:- 95%
- Dissolved proteins(serum albumin, globulin and fibrinogens), glucose, clotting factors and electrolytes, hormones, carbon dioxide and oxygen:- 6-8%
The blood plasma is then poured and drawn off.
According to WHO model list of essential medicines, FRESH FROZEN PLASMA is the most important medication needed in basic healthcare systems.
AB blood group is considered most safe for plasma donation because it does not contain the antibodies that may cost react with the recipient antigens.
Therefore AB blood group is considered as “universal donor” in case of plasma donation.
Plasma can be transfused either in the extracted form or in the form of whole blood.
PROCEDURE OF PLASMA DONATION:
A member of the healthcare team will ask you for your identification photo ID, your address, your social security etc.
This is all done to maintain the security of blood donation and transfusion.
SCREENING/ PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
This is basically the assessment phase of the donor where keen evaluation is done regarding the health status of the donor and the risks associated with the donation procedure are identified.
After collecting the biodata of the patient, Complete medical and surgical history is collected. History regarding the nutrition of the patient and a drug therapy is also identified.
Complete physical examination of the donor is done including head to toe and systemic examination. The temperature, pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate etc are assessed.
The donor is necessarily assessed for the complete blood count and presence of any haemorrhagic or haemolytic symptom is identified if any.
The procedure of plasma collection is performed by a medical specialist; phlebotomist.
The extraction of the plasma from the whole blood is done through The process of plasmapheresis.
The donor lies comfortably straight on the bed and the procedure is somewhat similar to the blood donation.
A sterile needle is used for the blood collection, the blood passes into the plasmapheresis machine where plasma is extracted through staining, and the red blood cells are returned into the blood circulation through the same needle.
This procedure lasts about for 45 minutes.
The donor is educated to take proper rest, take maximum fluids with adequate electrolytes, proper diet ie, balanced and protein-rich diet.
The donor is educated to avoid heavy works and driving for next few hours.
BENEFITS OF PLASMA DONATION
- The donors could help a number of patients suffering from haemolytic and haemorrhagic disorders because plasma is the most required bioproduct in the medical healthcare settings.
- The donors can participate in order to help their family members, friends, relatives or as a social service.
- It provides the donors with the satisfaction of helping someone among the critically ill infants, children, adults and old-age people who are waiting for plasma for their treatment and saving their lives.
- The donors could get paid for the donation. Therefore, plasma donation is also a method of financial earning along with social service.
MAINTAIN CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH
- It helps to reduce the blood viscosity.
- It helps to reduce the risk of cardiac stroke and heart attacks.
- It helps to remove the excess iron which may oxidise in the body and cause cardiac problems.
REDUCES THE RISK OF CANCER
- The removal of excess Iron from the body helps in preventing the risk of cancer.
- Because excessive Iron in the body is related to the free radical damage and associated with the risk of cancer.
- Donors can burn the adequate amount of calories on plasma donation.
- There is approximately loss of about 650 calories on the donation of 1 unit blood.
- Therefore blood and plasma donation is helpful in weight loss.
FREE BLOOD ANALYSIS
- The donor’s blood is examined for the infections like HIV, hepatitis, syphilis etc free of cost.
- Therefore free blood analysis is one of the benefits that the donors get.
CRITERIA FOR DONOR SELECTION
- Only individuals with good health should be selected as the donors.
- The blood transfusion physician Should collect complete medical, surgical, nutritional, pharmacological history of the donor.
- The donor is screened for any infectious diseases like HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis etc. or any metabolic disorder like diabetes or thyroid problems.
- AGE: The lower age limit for plasma donation is 18 years and upper age limit is 60 years.
- The colour of the skin should be normal, without jaundice, cyanosis without any inflammation and lymph Node enlargement.
- WEIGHT: The weight of the donor should not be less than 50 kg.
- PULSE: The pulse should be normal about 60-80 beats/minute.
- BLOOD PRESSURE: A normal blood pressure (systolic 120–129 mmHg, diastolic 80–89 mmHg).
- BODY TEMPERATURE: Oral temperature should not be more than 37.6°C
- HAEMOGLOBIN SCREENING: The Hb levels recommended are 12.5 g/dl for females and 13.5 g/dl for males.
CONTRAINDICATIONS OF PLASMA DONATION:
- Trauma/ hemorrhagic
- Haemolytic disorders
- Infections like HIV, hepatitis, etc.
- Old age people; age above 70 years
- Plasma donation is restricted in certain drug therapies.
- Severe anxiety
SIDE EFFECTS OF PLASMA DONATION:
- DEHYDRATION: As the plasma is 95% composed of water, the client’s hydration status is needed to be maintained otherwise it could lead to dehydration.
- DIZZINESS AND FATIGUE: Plasma contains a rich amount of protein and nutrients as its components. Therefore plasma donation results result in lethargy, dizziness and fatigue.
- BRUISING: It is a less common side effect which occurs due to needle pricking and withdrawing blood.
- DISCOMFORT: It is associated with anxiety, fatigue, lethargy, dizziness, and needle pricking.
- INFECTION: Infections may occur associated with the transmission of bacteria through the punctured tissues or associated with improper aseptic techniques.
- CITRATE REACTION: The anticoagulant substance is added to the plasmapheresis machine to prevent clotting before the blood is returned to the body.
However, citrate is retained in the plasma but a small amount of it may pass into the blood and react with calcium molecules which results in temporary loss of calcium.
Is donating plasma safe?
We discussed everything related to plasma donation. Now we will discuss Is donating plasma safe?
Basically, the plasma donation procedure is safe.
It does not have any significant adverse effect. However keen observation and care are required to prevent any complication.
Hydration status of the patient shall be maintained and before and after the procedure to prevent dehydration.
Proper balanced and proteins which diet should be provided to the patient after plasma donation.
The donor should avoid driving and heavy works after the procedure for certain hours to prevent any significant adverse effect.
Proper is septic techniques should be used during the procedure to prevent any type of minor or major infection.
Plasma donation is a safe procedure but its safety is not guaranteed in the contraindicated cases like children, old age, pregnancy, lactation and others.
ALL THAT U SHOULD KNOW BEFORE PLASMA DONATION:
- The donor should be provided with relevant information about the procedure and its criteria
- The minimum age for plasma donation is 18 years and a maximum age is 60 years.
- Hydration status of the donor should be well maintained before the procedure.
- The donor should be physically healthy without any metabolic disorder.
- The donor should not be suffering from infectious diseases like HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis etc.
- The donor should be educated that he could suffer from dehydration after the procedure so therefore he has to maintain his hydration status and consume an adequate amount of fluids.
- The donor should be informed that he could suffer from fatigue, lethargy, dizziness, drowsiness after the procedure so he has to avoid driving and heavy works after the procedure for certain hours.
- Because plasma contains a rich amount of nutrients and proteins so the donor may suffer from weakness after the procedure so educate the donor to take well balanced and proteins rich diet.
- The plasma donation procedure could not be performed without the consent of the donor
- Plasma donation is restricted in case of lactation and pregnancy
- Detection of the donor for risk of anaemia what any other haemolytic or haemorrhagic disorder is very necessary before to plasma donation procedure.